Battery Chargers

Battery chargers include devices that charges batteries, including battery chargers embedded in other products. Consumer battery chargers include chargers for cordless phones, cellular phones, power tools, laptops, and golf carts. Non-consumer battery chargers include chargers for two-way radios, emergency backup lighting, and lift trucks.1

The Multi-State Collaborative is providing these standard summaries as a courtesy; these materials are not intended to interpret state regulations. The user is responsible for reading and interpreting the regulations.

Which states have a standard?

Of the states participating in the Multi-State Appliance Collaborative, the following have a standard for battery chargers; the date in parentheses shows the effective date of the standard:

California

Effective 2013 for consumer chargers and 2014 for industrial chargers.

For more information on California’s standards, please see California Appliance Efficiency Regulations

Definitions

California Title 20 Section 1602(w). Also see section 1602 (a) for general definitions

"24 hour charge and maintenance energy" means the sum of the energy, in watt-hours, consumed by the battery charger system in charge and battery-maintenance mode when charging the battery over time periods as defined in the applicable test method in Section 1604(w). This time period may exceed 24 hours.

"À la carte charger" means a battery charger that is individually packaged without batteries. À la carte chargers include those with multi-voltage or multi-port capability.

"Battery" or "battery pack" means an assembly of one or more rechargeable cells intended to provide electrical energy to a product, and may be in one of the following forms: (a) detachable battery: a battery that is contained in a separate enclosure from the product and is intended to be removed or disconnected from the product for recharging; or (b) integral battery: a battery that is contained within the product and is not removed from the product for charging purposes.

"Battery analyzer" means a device:

  1. used to analyze and report a battery’s performance and overall condition;
  2. capable of being programmed and performing service functions to restore capability in deficient batteries; and
  3. not intended or marketed to be used on a daily basis for the purpose of charging batteries.

"Battery backup" or "uninterruptible power supply charger (UPS)" means a small battery charger system that is voltage and frequency dependent (VFD) and designed to provide power to an end use product in the event of a power outage, and includes a UPS as defined in IEC 62040-3 ed.2.0 (March 2011). The output of the VFD UPS is dependent on changes in AC input voltage and frequency and is not intended to provide additional corrective functions, such as those relating to the use of tapped transformers.

"Battery charger system (BCS)" means a battery charger coupled with its batteries or battery chargers coupled with their batteries, which together are referred to as battery charger systems. This term covers all rechargeable batteries or devices incorporating a rechargeable battery and the chargers used with them. Battery charger systems include, but are not limited to:

  1. electronic devices with a battery that are normally charged from ac line voltage or dc input voltage through an internal or external power supply and a dedicated battery charger;
  2. the battery and battery charger components of devices that are designed to run on battery power during part or all of their operations;
  3. dedicated battery systems primarily designed for electrical or emergency backup; and
  4. devices whose primary function is to charge batteries, along with the batteries they are designed to charge. These units include chargers for power tool batteries and chargers for automotive, AA, AAA, C, D, or 9 V rechargeable batteries, as well as chargers for batteries used in larger industrial motive equipment and à la carte chargers.
  5. The charging circuitry of battery charger systems may or may not be located within the housing of the end-use device itself. In many cases, the battery may be charged with a dedicated external charger and power supply combination that is separate from the device that runs on power from the battery.

"Battery energy" means the energy, in watthours, delivered by the battery under the specified discharge conditions as determined using the applicable test method in Section 1604(w).

"Battery maintenance mode (maintenance mode)" means the mode of operation when the battery charger system is connected to the main electricity supply and the battery is fully charged, but is still connected to the charger.

"Charge return factor" means the number of ampere hours (Ah) returned to the battery during the charge cycle divided by the number of Ah delivered by the battery during discharge.

"Energy ratio" or "nonactive energy ratio" means the ratio of the accumulated nonactive energy divided by the battery energy.

"Inductive charger system" means a small battery charger system that transfers power to the charger through magnetic or electric induction.

"Large battery charger system" means a battery charger system (other than a battery charger system for golf carts) with a rated input power of more than 2 kW.

"Multi-port charger" means a battery charger that is capable of simultaneously charging two or more batteries. These chargers also may have multi-voltage capability, allowing two or more batteries of different voltages to charge simultaneously.

"No battery mode" means the mode of operation when the battery charger is connected to the main electricity supply and the battery is not connected to the charger.

"Power conversion efficiency" means the instantaneous DC output power of the charger system divided by the simultaneous utility AC input power.

"Small battery charger system" means a battery charger system with a rated input power of 2 kW or less, and includes golf cart battery charger systems regardless of the input power.

"USB charger system" means a small battery charger system that uses a Universal Serial Bus (USB) connector as the only power source to charge the battery, and is packaged with an external power supply rated with a voltage output of 5 volts and a power output of 15 watts or less.

Energy Efficiency Standards

California Title 20 Section 1605.3 (w)

(1) Energy Efficiency Standards for Large Battery Charger Systems. Large battery charger systems manufactured on or after January 1, 2014, shall meet the applicable performance values in Table W-1.

Table W-1 Standards for Large Battery Charger Systems
Performance Parameter Standard
Performance Parameter Standard
Charge Return Factor (CRF) 100 percent, 80 percent Depth of discharge CRF ≤ 1.10
40 percent Depth of discharge CRF ≤ 1.15
Power Conversion Efficiency Greater than or equal to 89%
Power Factor Greater than or equal to 0.90
Maintenance Mode Power (Eb = battery capacity of tested battery) Less than or equal to: 10 + 0.0012Eb W
No Battery Mode Power Less than or equal to: 10 W

(2) Energy Efficiency Standards for Small Battery Charger Systems. Except as provided in 1605.3(w)(3), 1605.3(w)(4), and 1605.3(w)(2)(D), the following small battery charger systems shall meet the applicable performance values in Table W-2:

Table W-2
Performance Parameter Standard
Maximum 24 hour charge and maintenance energy (Wh)

(Eb = capacity of all batteries in ports and N = number of charger ports)
For Eb of 2.5 Wh or less: 16 x N
For Eb greater than 2.5 Wh and less than or equal to 100 Wh: 12 x N + 1.6Eb
For Eb greater than 100 Wh and less than or equal to 1000 Wh: 22 x N + 1.5Eb
For Eb greater than 100 Wh to 1000 Wh: 36.4 x N + 1.486Eb
Maintenance Mode Power and No Battery Mode Power (W)

(Eb = capacity of all batteries in ports and N = number of charger ports)
The sum of maintenance mode power and no battery mode power must be less than or equal to 1 x N + 0.0021 x Eb

(A) consumer products that are not USB charger systems with a battery capacity of 20 watt-hours or more, and are manufactured on or after February 1, 2013

(B) consumer products that are USB charger systems with a battery capacity of 20 watt-hours or more and are manufactured on or after January 1, 2014; and

(C) those that are not consumer products and are manufactured on or after January 1, 2017.

(D) An à la carte charger that satisfies the following criteria shall not be required to meet any otherwise applicable standards in Section 1605.3(w)(2) or Table W-2:

i. provided separately from and subsequent to the sale of small battery charger system manufactured before the effective date of the applicable standard in Section 1605.3(w)(2);

ii. necessary as a replacement for, or as a replacement component of, such small battery charger system;

iii. is provided by a manufacturer directly to a consumer or to a service or repair facility; and

iv. is manufactured no more than five years after the effective date in Section 1605.3(w)(2) applicable to the particular small battery charger system for which the à la carte charger is intended as a replacement or replacement component,

(3) Inductive Charger Systems Inductive charger systems manufactured on or after February 1, 2013, shall meet either the applicable performance standards in Table W-2 or shall use less than 1 watt in maintenance mode, less than 1 watt in no battery mode, and an average of 1 watt or less over the duration of the charge and maintenance mode test.

(4) Battery Backup and Uninterruptible Power Supplies Battery backup and uninterruptible power supplies manufactured on or after February 1, 2013, for consumer products and January 1, 2017, for products that are not consumer products shall consume no more than 0.8+0.0021 x Eb watts in maintenance mode where Eb is the battery capacity in watt-hours.

Test Method

California Title 20 Section 1604

(w) Battery Charger Systems.

(1) Test Method for Small Battery Charger Systems The test method for small battery charger systems is 10 CFR Section 430.23(aa) (Appendix Y to Subpart B of Part 430) (2011).

(A) Multi-port battery charger systems shall be tested for 24-hour efficiency and maintenance mode with a battery in each port.

(B) For single port small battery charger systems, the highest 24-hour charge and maintenance energy, maintenance mode, and no battery mode results of the test procedure shall be used for purposes of reporting and determining compliance with Section 1605.3(w)(2), Table W-2.

(C) For purposes of computing the small battery charger system standard, the number of ports included in a multi-port charger system shall be equal to the number ports that are separately controlled. For example a multi-port chargers system that charges eight batteries by using two charge controllers that charge four batteries in parallel would use two for “N” as described in Section 1605.3(w)(2),Table W-2.

(D) Small battery charger systems that are not consumer products may use the battery manufacturer’s recommended end of discharge voltage in place of values in 10 CFR Section 420.23(aa) (Appendix Y to Subpart B of Part 430) (2011), Table 5.2, where the table’s values are not applicable.

(2) Test Method for Large Battery Charger Systems The test method for large battery charger systems is Energy Efficiency Battery Charger System Test Procedure Version 2.2 dated November 12, 2008 and published by ECOS and EPRI Solutions with the following modifications:

(A) The test procedure shall be conducted for 100, 80, and 40 percent discharge rates for only one charge profile, battery capacity, and battery voltage. The manufacturer shall test one battery and one charge profile using the following criteria:

  1. the charge profile with the largest charge return factor;
  2. the smallest rated battery capacity; and
  3. the lowest voltage battery available at that rated capacity.

(B) The battery manufacturer’s recommended end of discharge voltage may be used in place of values in the test method Part 1, Section III.F, Table D where the table’s values are not applicable.

Labeling Requirements

California Title 20 Section 1607

(12) Battery Charger Systems Each battery charger system shall be marked with a “BC” inside a circle. The marking shall be legible and permanently affixed to:

(A) the product nameplate that houses the battery charging terminal or;

(B) the retail packaging and, if included, the cover page of the instructions.

For more information on California’s standards, please see the California page.

Oregon

Effective January 1st, 2014

The Oregon battery chargers standard will be adopted January 1, 2014. Please check back soon for more information, and to search for qualified products.

For more information on Oregon’s standards, please see the Oregon page.


1Adapted from the Appliance Standards Awareness Project, retrieved on December 19, 2013, from http://www.appliance-standards.org/product/battery-chargers